福中教育网-英语短文改错万能公式

英语短文改错万能公式

福中教育网

高考短文改错题具有“高起点、低落点”的特点,对学生的语言感觉和语言能力要求较高,但改正的错误往往比较简单。很多学生做不好改错题不是因为没有掌握这些语法知识,而是不能通过语感找出错误。所以培养学生有意识地去注意一些高考短文改错的常考点非常重要。下面是英语短文改错万能公式,供参考。

英语短文改错万能公式

英语短文改错语法口诀

(一)见到谓语找主语,主谓一致找状语

见到名词想多数,可不可数要记牢

见到平行看结构,形式功能要对称

见到代词找指代,指代通常不合理

带宾语必带to,不带宾语不带to

小小of常抓的点,of前名词adj最高级

比较级不修饰比较级,最高级不修饰最高级

(二)谓与非谓经常混

谓语句中就一个

其余动词非谓语

常见形式有三种

v-ing ,v-ed和to do

主谓通常v-ing

动宾通常v-ed

现在分词表主动

过去分词表被动

目的要用不定式

by前有过去分词相拥

by后有动名词后抱

介词后跟动名词

时态基点要搞清

现在还是过去时

(三)规则是说谎lie

不规则是躺 lie lay

躺过就下蛋 lay laid

lied lied lain laid

下蛋不规则

短文改错解题思路和检查原则

1.句中各部分的结构是否完整,特别是每个句子要有动词;

2.谓语动词的时态、语态;

3.非谓语动词的用法;

4.名词的单、复数,格的使用是否正确;

5.定冠词和不定冠词是否正确;

6.代词的格和性的使用是否有误;

7.定语从句中关系代词、副词是否准确无误;

8.并列句中的并列连词、主从复合句中的从属连词用的是否得当。短文改错解题四原则:改动以最少为原则;虚词以添加或删除为原则;实词以改变词形为原则以保持句子原意为原则。短文改错解题步骤:通读全文,掌握大意;整句分析,逐行推敲,反复通读,复查验证。

解题注意要点和能力培养:

1.核对错项时,若的确有一时难以改出的地方,可以参考所改动项是否基本符合“1:1:8”的比例。即多一词1个,缺词1个,错词8个。

2.核对改正的语法项目是否有重复。因为短文改错往往覆盖面广,一般不会出现重复考查某个语法点的现象。

3.核对答题符号是否规范,位置是否准确,看看有无遗漏符号,忽略字母大小写和拼写等问题。

短文改错常见错误类型

1.谓语动词的错误:常见动词错误类型有:①一般现在时与一般过去时错用;②and前后动词时态不一致;③主谓不一致;④缺少动词,特别是be动词;⑤第三人称单数形式错用;⑥主动语态和被动语态错用。Theydid not want me to do any work at home;they want me to devote allmy time to my studies.(did改为do,错误类型属于①)As weclimbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and toldstories.(visiting改为visited,错误类型属于②)Therewill an important game next month.(will后加be,错误类型属于④)Oneevening she told me that something happened when her parents wasout.(was改为were,错误类型属于③)

2.名词的常见错误:单复数名词错用,可数名词与不可数名词错用。I’ll get good marks in all mysubject.(subject改为subjects)Theirword were a great encouragement to me.(word改为words)Withoutenough knowledges, you can never teach well.(knowledges改为knowledge)

3.连词错误:连词包括关系代词、副词,并列连词and/ or/but等。关于连词,一般考查从句关系who/whom/whose/what/which/how/why/when/where/if/whether等。 I havea good friend who’s name is Liu Mei.(错用了who的所有格形式,改为whose)Iteachthem, play with them, but watch them growing up.(此处应该是并列的关系而非转折,but改为and)Cleveras she is, but she works very hard.(as意为“尽管”,不能再跟but连用,所以去掉but)

4.冠词错误:误用a和an(根据单词的第一个音素来判定);误用a/an和the(固定搭配,或泛指、特指;多冠词或少冠词)We maybe one family and live under a same roof. (a改为the,the same是固定搭配)Aseveryone knows,it’s famous mountain with all kinds ofpants.(mountain是可数名词需用冠词,所以其前加a)I hopeyou have pleasant journey.(journey是可数名词,故have后加a)

5.形容词和副词错误:系动词后用形容词(be/am/is/are/was/were/become/go/感官性动词smell/feel);词性的误用(形容词修饰名词;副词修饰动词、形容词)。I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully timetogether.(time是名词所以要用形容词wonderful修饰)Mypronunciation was terribly.(was后用形容词,terribly改为terrible.)

6.代词错误:代词的主格和宾格(I/me;he/him;she/her;we/us they/them)错误;反身代词(myself/yourself/himself/herself/themselves/ourselves)使用错误;代词的单数和复数使用错误;代词指代错误;多代词或少代词。Soon Ibegan to enjoy talking to myself on paper as I was learning toexpress me in simple English.(me改为myself) One dayI wrote a little story and showed to my teacher.(to前加it)If anyone of us had any difficulty in our life and study, the other wouldhelp him out.(other后加s)What’smore,you have to be friends with your pupils and take good care ofhim.(him改为them)

7.非谓语动词的常见错误:不定式、动名词作主语、宾语时;and连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致(尤其距离较远时);介词后用动名词形式作宾语;某些动词后要求接动名词或不定式。Soon Ibegan to enjoy talk to myself on paper.(enjoy 后需接动名词,talk改为talking)But hisparents think go to college is more important than playing sports.(go作主语,应改为going) Children may not develop the habit of read and the abilityto enjoy themselves.(介词后用动名词形式作宾语,read改为reading) Iparticularly enjoyed driving through the countryside with you andsaw the changing colors of the leaves on the trees.(and连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致,故saw改为seeing)

8.介词错误:词组中的介词误用;介词意思理解偏差;介词的多用或少用 Thereare too many people among my family.(among改为in,in myfamily 为固定搭配)I wasso tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched thepillow.(去掉at, themoment 引导从句)

为了提高做短文改错题的能力,除了要加强基础知识的积累、提高语篇的整体理解能力之外,还应该对其错项设置的基本情况有所了解,以便做到目标明确,有的放矢,从而提高解题的正确率。本文拟从语法和逻辑的角度,用口诀的形式,向同学们介绍高考英语短文改错中最常见的几类错误。

英语短文改错口诀

动词形,名词数;

注意形和副;

非谓动词细辨别;

习惯用法要记住;

句子成分多分析;

逻辑错误须关注。

一.动词形

主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和语态错误,以及主、谓不一致的错误。例如: My favourite sport is football. I was member of our school football team. (is) Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library. (are)

上述两例分别属于时态错误和主、谓不一致错误。找出此类错误的关键是树立牢固的时态概念,注意短文内容发生或存在的时间,保持时间概念的一致性。

二.名词数

指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表现为将名词复数写成单数。例如:

…so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. (subjects)

三.区分形和副

及区分形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用法。 这也是高考短文改错的常考点。例如:

I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. (wonderful)

Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family. (Unfortunately)

需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。

四.非谓动词细辨别

这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。例如:

…in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football. (interested)

Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … (playing) My parents love me… and will do all they can ∧ make sure… (to)

上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语,和不定式作目的状语。一般的,现在分词有主动态和进行时的含义,而过去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义,不定式有将来时态的含义。

五.习惯用法要记住

主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识。这也是历年高考的常考点,其错误表现形式主要有三种:多词、少词和搭配错误。 例如:

It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and… (of)

We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves. (of)

六.句子成分多分析

不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如:

They∧eager to know everything about China and… (were)

I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. (which)

第一例漏掉了谓语动词were,这是受寒于习惯的影响而导致的错误;第二例则是词类与它在句子中的成分不相符,where是副词,不能作主语。

七.逻辑错误须关注

与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如:

The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home.(their)

First, let me tell you something more about myself.(去掉more)

…no way of setting the matter except by selling the set.Now someone at home reads instead. (everyone)

上述第一例中的主语是Smiths(史密斯夫妇俩),因此后面的his不合逻辑。第二例中的more在这儿表“再”的意思,才开始告诉别人,怎么能说“再告诉你一些事”?第三例讲的是为了解决看电视时的争端,“我们”把电视机卖了;晚上没电视看了,所以与从前一样,大家又都读书了,所以该用everyone。

除了上述错误类型外,常考的错误形式还有:连词but, and, or和so的用法错误(可以归类为逻辑错误),以及冠词的用法错误等。例如:

She was smiling but nodding at me.(and)

It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest.(or)

We may be one family and live under a same roof.(the)

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